Montreal Protocol

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Introduction

Montreal protocol was enacted to eliminate production and use of ozone depleting substances mainly CFC and HCFC (hydro chloro florocarbon). HFC started replacing CFC & HCFC in phase manner. Montreal protocol is legally binding.

The Montreal Protocol uses three kinds of provisions as economic incentives to encourage participation and compliance with the Protocol’ s control regime; (1) entry into force requirements, (2) controls on trade with non-parties, and (3) research and technology transfer benefits. The Protocol promotes technology transfer to developing countries, thereby offering economic incentives for developing countries to join and comply through a network of 507 monitoring stations located all over the country . Under the National Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Programme, many station have been set up to monitored cities/towns by the CPCB (Central Pollution Control Board).

Problem

HFC have a greenhouse gas effect contributing to global warming. The potential of HFC is thousands of times more than that of carbon dioxide.there is urgent need to phaseout production and use of HFC.

Solution

India wants to happen it through Kyoto protocol as Montreal protocol is only for ozone depleting substances , whereas HFC is global warming substances. Developed countries want it to happen through Montreal protocol as it is legally binding whereas Kyoto has already lived its life and is based on differentiated responsibilities. Most of the developed countries have already started using cleaner alternatives .

India's stand

  • Carbon markets are no longer lucrative.
  • Global architecture on climate change will witness significant changes in coming years, future of kyoto protocol is not clear
  • India has agreed to implement phasing out of HFC through Montreal protocol.
  • India wants grace period of 15 years for developing countries to phase out HFC. Most countries are agreeable to this demand.

Reference

"A Cool Shift" - Indian Express - 20th April 2015 <comments />