Linkages between development and spread of extremism

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Definition

Extremism is ideology outside the mainstream attitudes of a society or common moral standards. Extremist activities may be seen as just , unjust or terrorism by different people depending on their political & philosophical values.

Origin

Psychologically extremism is viewed as emotional outlet for severe feeling stemming from persistant oppression, insecurity, humilation, resentment, loss , rage which leads individuals and groups to adopt conflict enagement strategies.

Type of extremism

  • Ethnic - NE
  • religious - aakali dal
  • political -
  • linguistic - anti hindi in tamil nadu
  • regional - Uttarakhand

Causes of extremism

  • poverty, unemployment, discrimination, low education
  • absence of self government
  • cultural humiliation
  • displacement - SEZ, 40% displaced in orris are tribals
  • failure of state function
  • forest excise policy - declared reserve, deprived of livelihood
  • land alienation - lack of land reform, informal tenancy on rise
  • absence of credit mechanism
  • politically marginalized

Solution

  • effective implementation of legislation : MNREGA, Panchayat Ext of Schedule area, ST & other traditional dewellers(Reco of Rights) Act, National Rehab & resettlement Policy
  • Land Measures - ceiling, redistribution, land tribunals, fast track court
  • livelihood safety - conservation of soil, tech improvement, credit, support activity
  • Governance issue - unrest, need of state intervention, vacuum of admin
  • Universalize basic services - development of infra, water supply, electricity, roads etc