IFoS Geology Paper-II
(i) Mineralogy: Classification of crystals into systems and classes of symmetry. International system of crystallographic notation. Use of projection diagrams to represent crystal symmetry. Crystal defects. Elements of xray crystallography. Petrological microscope and accessories. Optical properties of common rock forming minerals. Pleochroism, extinction angle, double refraction, birefringence, twinning and dispersion in minerals. Physical and chemical characters of rock forming silicate mineral groups. Structural classification of silicates. Common minerals of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Minerals of the caronate, phosphate, sulphide and halide groups.
(ii) Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology: Generation and crystallisation of magma. Crystallisation of albite-anorthite, diopside-anorthite and diopsidewollastonite- silica systems. Reaction principle. Magmatic differentiation and assimilation. Petrogenetic significance of the textures and structures of igneous rocks. Petrography and petrogenesis of granite, syenite, diorite, basic and ultrabasic groups, charnockite, anorthosite and alkaline rocks. Carbonatites. Deccan volcanic province. Types and agents of metamorphism. Metamorphic grades and zones. Phase rule. Facies of regional and contact metamorphism. ACF and AKF diagrams. Textures and structures of metamorphic rocks. Metamorphism of arenaceous, argillaceous and basic rocks. Minerals assemblages, Retrograde metamorphism. Metasomatism and granitisation, migmatities, granulite terrains of India.
(iii) Sedimentology: Sedimentary rocks: Processes of formation, diagenesis and lithification, Properties of sediments. Clastic and nonclastic rocks-their classification, petrography and depositional environment, Sedimentary facies and provenance. Sedimentary structures and their significance. Heavy minerals and their significance. Sedimentary basins of India.
(iv) Economic Geology: Ore, ore minerals and gangue, tenor of ore, classification of ore deposits. Process of formation of minerals deposits. Controls of ore locallisation. Ore textures and structures, Metallogenic epochs and provinces, Geology of the important Indian deposits of aluminium, chromium, copper, gold, iron, lead, zinc, manganese, titanium, uranium and thorium and industrial minerals. Deposits of coal and petroleum in India. National Mineral Policy. Conservation and utilization of mineral resources. Marine mineral resources and Law of Sea.
(v) Mining Geology: Methods of prospecting-geological, geophysical, geo-chemical and geo-botanical, Techniques of sampling. Estimation of reserves of ore, Methods of exploration and mining metalic ores, industrial minerals and marine mineral resources. Mineral beneficiation and ore dressing.
(vi) Geochemistry and Environmental Geology: Cosmic abundance of elements, Composition of the planets and meteorites, Structure and composition of earth and distribution of elements, Trace elements, Elements of crystal chemistry – types of chemical bonds, coordination number, Isomorphism and polymorphism, Elementary thermodynamics. Natural hazards-floods, landslides, coastal erosion, earthquakes and volcanic activity and mitigation, Environmental impact of urbanization, open cast mining, industrial and radioactive waste disposal, use of fertilizers, dumping of mine waste and fly-ash. Pollution of ground and surface water, marine pollution,environment protection-legislative measures in India.