Different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage
- water needed at appropriate stage/interval
- water sources declining - need for efficient method
- appropriate choice of irrigation method saves water & increases productivity.
Selection of irrigation method
- depends on crop, eg chilly need at transfer & thereafter weekly.
- number of crop cannot withstand excess moisture & water stagnation.
- it also depends of soil texture, depth of root, erosion, salinity
- field topology - slope of field, regularity of surface
- climate & weather conditions - efficient planning
- availability of electricity
- economic consideration
Surface irrigation methods
- water is applied directly to soil through a channel located at upper reach of field
- need proper land preparation & construction of distribution systems
(i) Border Irrigation method
- - best suited to larger mechanized farms
- -for long field length for easy machine operation.
- -land formed in strips
- -leveled across narrow dimension
- -border bound strip
- -water is turned into upper end of border strip
- -most complicated of all
- -efficiency depends on design adherence - wheat , bearley etc but not for paddy.
(ii) Check Basin irrigation
- -simplest available mode of irrigation
- -dividing field or farm into smaller unit area such that each has a nearly level surface
- -suitable for field crops that are un affected by standing water
- -eg : citrus tress, banana, cereals, tobacco.
(iii) Furrow irrigation
- -furrows are small parallel channels, made to carry water for irrigation
- -suitable for wide range of soil & crops
- -row crops like maize, sunflower, soya
- - crops that could be demanded by inundation.
(i) Sprinkler Irrigation
- - Similar to exposing crop to natural rainfall
- - good for sandy soil with high infiltration rate
shallow soil where leveling and shaping of soil may expose subsoil quickly prepare land as no need for levelling and shaping, furrow etx better application of fertilizer, pesticide eliminate water loss due to seepage.
- - Limitation - windy & high temperature cause loss of water,saline water may cause leaf burn in many crops, costly system and require maintenance.
(ii) Drip/trickle irrigation
- - increase crop yield, high irrigation efficiency, low energy/labour also known as micro-irrigation
- - fertilizer and water is placed at roots
- - orchard, veg crop is not suited due to their high density
- - improve water penetration
- - less weed
- - reduction in deleterious effects of salts.